Turbine engineering – Comparing Pelton, Francis & Kaplan TurbineIn the production of hydroelectricity, Pelton, Francis and Kaplan are the most commonly used turbines. Each of the turbines is unique and must be used in suitable conditions.
In Pelton, the thing responsible for the rotation of the impeller is the impulse force of the water jet. This means that Pelton turbines are suitable when water energy is available at high head and low flow rate.
Kaplan turbines, on the other hand, are more suitable the other way around. The reaction force in this turbine is produced by airfoil action of the runner blades. When water is available at high flow rate and low head, this is the Kaplan turbine is the way to go.
Francis turbines come in between – medium head to medium flow rate applications. Here, only a portion of the force comes from the impulse action.
Check out the video below to find out more!